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By Aviezer Tucker

The fifty entries during this Companion hide the most concerns within the philosophies of historiography and heritage, together with common background and the practices of historians.• Written through a global and multi-disciplinary team of experts• A state of the art up-to-date photograph of present examine within the field• a part of the well known Blackwell Companions sequence

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We simply cannot bring the First World War to a close again, but this time without putting the crippling monetary-reparation demands on Germany, to see if Europe would be drawn to war again so quickly. The methodological question is whether this disability puts historiography at an epistemic disadvantage. It is important to note that some sciences are similarly disabled. Astronomers have no control over the things they study. There is no remaking the sun, only at a different temperature. Geologists are unable to repeat many of the phenomena they are most interested in.

Once the subject is rigorously historicized or conditioned by structures, it cannot serve as a reference. Thus, Foucault could claim “the death of the subject,” and, consequently, the death of meaning. Actions of the individual are certainly subjectively meaningful, we can also talk about a social meaning in the case of social groups. Identification and legitimization are created according to a social position. The problem, however, is how we can give meaning to long-term courses of events, to epochs, or cultures.

It is holistic and its argumentation is rhetorical, it stresses figurativeness rather than logic. As it does not know transcendence, it gives no emphasis to religion. For the ancient Chinese, the order of the world, nature, justice, and morals all coincide. That is why we do not find much in the way of myth or epic in China. Synchrony predominates – and, hence, in literary terms, the lyric. The concept of the golden age prevails as an ideal. Change is cyclical. Only the school of Legism went beyond this framework.

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