According to the weight and resistance issue layout philosophy (LRFD), this booklet is the results of a five-year learn attempt lower than AASHTO's nationwide Cooperative road learn application (NCHRP) undertaking 12-42, and a persevered attempt via AASHTO technical committees. This significant step in more suitable bridge layout and extra exact research is anticipated to guide to bridges displaying greater serviceability, more suitable long term maintainability, and extra uniform degrees of defense. because the First variation was once released in 1994, the provisions have endured to be up to date and superior in accordance with carrying on with learn and the event of the person group. the recent standards were systematically validated in trial designs and feature now been applied by way of all 50 states, with forty eight states totally carried out.
incorporated during this digital variation are the 2008 and 2009 period in-between Revisions. Following each one bankruptcy the revisions are pointed out in addition to associated during the complete e-book the place on hand. See the replaced and Deleted Articles sections for a whole checklist of adjustments to every part.
Preface and Abbreviated desk of Contents
desk of Contents
replaced and Deleted Articles, 2007
replaced and Deleted Articles, 2008
replaced and Deleted Articles, 2009
Section 1. Introduction
Section 2. basic layout and placement Features
Section three. lots and cargo Factors
Section four. Structural research and Evaluation
Section five. Concrete Structures
Section 6. metal Structures
Section 7. Aluminum Structures
Section eight. wooden Structures
Section nine. Decks and Deck Systems
Section 10. Foundations
Section eleven. Abutments, Piers, and Walls
Section 12. Buried buildings and Tunnel Liners
Section thirteen. Railings
Section 14. Joints and Bearings
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0 ft. outside the normal shoulder line. 2—Protection of Users Railings shall be provided along the edges of structures conforming to the requirements of Section 13. All protective structures shall have adequate surface features and transitions to safely redirect errant traffic. In the case of movable bridges, warning signs, lights, signal bells, gates, barriers, and other safety devices shall be provided for the protection of pedestrian, cyclists, and vehicular traffic. These shall be designed to operate before the opening of the movable span and to remain operational until the span has been completely closed.
Design piers on floodplains as river piers. Locate their foundations at the appropriate depth if there is a likelihood that the stream channel will shift during the life of the structure or that channel cutoffs are likely to occur. Where practical, use debris racks or ice booms to stop debris and ice before it reaches the bridge. Where significant ice or debris buildup is unavoidable, its effects should be accounted for in determining scour depths and hydraulic loads.
4 The impact of a bridge and its approaches on local communities, historic sites, wetlands, and other aesthetically, environmentally, and ecologically sensitive areas shall be considered. Compliance with state water laws; federal and state regulations concerning encroachment on floodplains, fish, and wildlife habitats; and the provisions of the National Flood Insurance Program shall be assured. Stream geomorphology, consequences of riverbed scour, removal of embankment stabilizing vegetation, and, where appropriate, impacts to estuarine tidal dynamics shall be considered.