By Luciano De Sio
Plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) characterize a very good type of nanomaterials that experience the potential to localize mild on the nanoscale by way of exploiting a phenomenon referred to as localized plasmon resonance. The booklet is aimed toward reviewing contemporary efforts dedicated to make the most of NPs in lots of examine fields, resembling photonics, optics, and plasmonics. during this framework, specific curiosity is dedicated to active plasmonics, a particularly extensive idea that exhibits these functions during which NPs play an lively function, like recognition of gain-assisted capability, usage of NPs embedded in liquid crystalline and versatile fabrics, and exploitation of renewable solar power. The ebook places jointly contributions from remarkable learn teams within the box of plasmonic nanomaterials around the globe. It presents easy and complex wisdom within the fields of plasmonics, photonics, and optics and covers examine on plasmonic nanomaterials for functions starting from plasmonics to photonics.
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Extra info for Active plasmonic nanomaterials
The situation gets more complicated for smaller NPs for which intrinsic size eﬀects should © 2016 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC May 27, 2015 10:53 PSP Book - 9in x 6in 38 Synthesis and Surface Engineering of Plasmonic Nanoparticles dominate. Experimentally, both a blue and a red-shift of the plasmon maximum have been observed with decreasing size [85, 96]. Furthermore, the magnitude of the wavelength shift in the absorption maximum for NPs in the intrinsic size region is small compared to the total line width of the plasmon resonance.
If the metallic nanoparticles are put in a surrounding medium with gain, a new fruitful theory is born. The problem can be treated by analyzing the case of a sub-wavelength metal nanosphere embedded in a homogeneous medium exhibiting optical gain. The quasi-static approach can be followed, and the presence of gain can be incorporated by replacing the real dielectric constant εm of the insulator surrounding the sphere with a complex dielectric function ε2 (ω). Using this straightforward analytical model, Lawandy has shown that the presence of gain, expressed by [ε2 ] < 0, can lead to a signiﬁcant strengthening of the plasmon resonance [Lawandy (2004)].
Compared with the in situ synthesis, the seed-mediated method allows an © 2016 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 02-LucianoDeSio-c02 May 27, 2015 10:53 PSP Book - 9in x 6in Synthesis of Hydrophilic Plasmonic Nanoparticles easier control on sizes and shapes of formed metal NPs. In the ﬁrst step of the procedure, small-size (typically less than 5 nm) Au NP seeds are prepared. In the second step, the seeds are added to a “growth” solution containing metal precursor and the stabilizing and reducing agents, then the newly reduced Au(0) grows at the seed surface to form large-size Au NPs.