Download Afghanistan Cave Complexes 1979-2004: Mountain strongholds by Mir Bahmanyar PDF

By Mir Bahmanyar

Following the Soviet invasion in 1979, the Mujahideen defenders of Afghanistan constructed and strengthened many normal cave structures to exploit as offer bases and protecting positions. The Taliban and Al Qaeda additional reinforced those positions within the Nineteen Nineties. Following the occasions of September eleven, 2001, those cave platforms have once again come to prominence and websites akin to Tora Bora and Zhawar Kili have featured in information headlines world wide. This identify offers an research of those caves and underground platforms, and discusses the U.S.-led Coalition's tactical method of dislodging the enemy from those fortified positions.

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Additional info for Afghanistan Cave Complexes 1979-2004: Mountain strongholds of the Mujahideen, Taliban & Al Qaeda (Fortress, Volume 26)

Example text

That is, their conduct of the war is very similar to that used historically by insurgency groups in Vietnam or Algeria. The individual Mujahideen’s best strength derives from his intimate knowledge of the terrain. Their local militias have tactical mobility, meaning that they could group together as a small unit or disband to fight another day. The element of surprise they gain from their ability to travel and successfully operate at night has given them another advantage. During the jihad against the Soviets, the guerrillas could easily call on other fighters to replenish their numbers.

Captured arms and intelligence documents are secured and retrieved for destruction or analysis. Site exploitations have yielded important intelligence over the years. Upon completion of exploitation, explosives are placed at all known tunnel entrances in order to seal each and prevent reuse by the enemy. If time or materials are not available for immediate closure, CS-1 Riot Control Agent can be placed at intervals down the tunnel at sharp turns and intersections. It must be emphasized, however, that the denial achieved by the use of CS-1 is only temporary in duration and used until demolitions are available to completely destroy the complex.

5mm machine guns caused from 50 to 70 percent of helicopter losses and damage, and from 40 to 50 percent of aircraft losses and damage. Also in limited use were Swiss 20mm Oerlikon antiaircraft guns and the Soviet-made self-propelled, four-barrel 23mm ZSU-23-4 automatic gun system known as Shilka, which is still used by the Taliban and the Northern Alliance. For better protection of their fortified bases and strongholds, enemy forces established a local early warning system that consisted of a net of observation posts.

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