Download Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application XIII by S. Trivikrama Rao, Christian Hogrefe, Gopal Sistla, PDF

By S. Trivikrama Rao, Christian Hogrefe, Gopal Sistla, Shiang-Yuh Wu, Winston Hao (auth.), Sven-Erik Gryning, Ekaterina Batchvarova (eds.)

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3% / -3% plus effects in adj. c. : no calculation plus effects in adj. states The enlargement of the area subject to control measures leads to a reduction of preloads in the air masses transported into the domain under consideration from (upwind) adjacent regions. As a consequence, the efficiency of local control measures is markedly higher due to a lower background concentration. To a large extent, the efficiency analysis of the reduction measures shows coinciding results in the three different modelling regions.

A) (b) Figure 1. Modelled ozone (ppb) and wind vectors at the first model level for a) 20Z August 1, 1988 and b) 20Z August 4, 1988. Comparison with observations As a model evaluation procedure, the simulated surface ozone is compared with observations from two sources: the EMEFS database and the Canadian National Air Pollutant Surveillance (NAPS) database. The comparisons for a selected sites shown in Figure 2 are presented here. More extensive and detailed evaluation can be found in Multistakeholder (1997) and Gong et al.

However, knowledge about the efficiency of control strategies and measures under discussion was widely lacking. Surveys analysing the effects of possible measures to reduce the emissions of ozone precursor substances NO x and VOCs (such as speed limits, driving restrictions or specific sector-related or species-related measures at local or national levels) on the emission levels and, subsequently, on peak ozone concentrations had not been conducted thus far. Against this background, the research objeetive of the "Programme of Control Concepts and Measures for Ozone (summer smog)" as commissioned by the Gennan Federal Environmental Agency (UmweltbundesamtY was defined as folIows: Determination and evaluation of the effectiveness of regional scale and of local scale emission control measures on elevated ground-Ievel ozone concentrations in mid-summer episodes.

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