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By Kuo-Nan Liou (Eds.)

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9 depicts a plot for the Lorentz profile. 3 17 Absorption Line Formation and Line Shape Doppler Fig. 9 Lorentz and Doppler line shapes for similar intensities and line widths. The Lorentz shape of infrared lines is fundamental for the theory of infrared radiative transfer in the atmosphere. Thus it is desirable to give a brief explanation of how the formula denoted in Eq. 34) is derived. 36a) where A is an arbitrary amplitude. During the period - tl2 to t12, the distribution of amplitude g(v) of the wave in the discrete frequency domain may be obtained from the Fourier cosine transform as follows: g(v) = ~ f ~/ 2 (A cos 2nv ot') cos 2nvt' dt' = _A_ [sin n(v o + v)t (2n)3/2 VA +v + sin n(v o - V)tJ.

The layer with a minimum temperature of 4000 extends to a few thousand kilometers, consisting of relatively cool gases lying over the hotter gases. These cool gases absorb continuous radiation emitted from the photosphere at wavelengths characteristic of the atoms in the sun, and generate the solar absorption spectrum. 3, when an atom absorbs radiant energy, it is excited to a new energy level. The excited atom then makes a transition to a lower excited state, or to the ground state, during which a quantum of energy is emitted.

Then the plane of OZ and OS will intersect the surface of the earth in a great circle. The angle ZOS, measured by the arc PD of this circle, is equal to the sun's zenith distance ()o. In the spherical triangle NPD, the arc ND is equal to 90° minus the solar inclination 0 which is the angular distance of the sun north (positive) or south (negative) of the equator. The arc NP is equal to 90° minus the latitude A of the observation point, and the angle h is the hour angle, or the angle through which the earth must turn to bring the meridian of P directly under the sun.

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