By W M Yen; Shigeo Shionoya; Hajime Yamamoto
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Extra info for Phosphor handbook
However, a group theoretical inspection of the symmetries of the wavefunctions of these states and the operators er and r × p enables the determination of the selection rules without calculating the matrix elements. © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. When an atom is free or in a spherical symmetry field, its electronic states are denoted by a set of the quantum numbers S, L, and J in the LS-coupling scheme. Here, S, L, and J denote the quantum number of the spin, orbital, and total angular momentum, respectively, and ∆S, for example, denotes the difference in S between the states m and n.
Part two Fundamentals of phosphors © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. , a small amount of intentionally added impurity atoms distributed in the host crystal. Therefore, the luminescence processes of a phosphor can be divided into two parts: the processes mainly related to the host, and those that occur around and within the activator. 1. , excitation by electron bombardment and the migration and transfer of the excitation energy in the host) are discussed in a later section.
In particular, absorption is the annihilation of light (photon) resulting from the creation of an electronic excitation or lattice excitation in crystals. Once electrons obtain energy from light, the electrons are excited to higher states. In such quantum mechanical phenomena, one can only calculate the probability of excitation. The probability depends on the distribution of microscopic energy levels of © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. L L L 7 6 7 E X1 L L 8 9(A) L 7 L L 8(A) L L 7(B) k 7(B) 7(C)    (a) (b) (c)  Figure 7 The typical band dispersion near Γ-point (k = 0) for II-VI or III-V semiconductor compounds.